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          彭运生谈艺录(2)

          作者:彭运生来源:发表于:2017-10-24 00:36:56阅读:
          彭运生谈艺录(2)
          结构与力量
          “身如菩提树,心如明镜台。时时勤拂拭,莫使惹尘埃”,这是神秀写的学佛心得;“菩提本无树,明镜亦非台。本来无一物,何处有尘埃”,这是慧能写的学佛心得。老和尚弘忍最终把衣钵传给了慧能,换言之,慧能因为自己的诗(偈颂)而成为禅宗的一代领袖。
          慧能的诗为什么就胜过了神秀的呢?这与慧能诗的形式(结构)有关吗?
          慧能诗形式上的特点是:第一和第二两句都是否定句,第三句是概括性的,也就是哲理性的,第四句是一个疑问句。
          这或许算得上汉语古诗的一个基本类型,属于此类型的诗好像都能给读者以“万钧之力”的感觉。
          “有耳莫洗颍川水,有口莫食首阳蕨。含光混世贵无名,何用孤高比云月”,这是李白一首“行路难”的前四句诗,也是属于这一类型。
          “游莫逐炎洲翠,栖莫近吴宫燕。吴宫火起焚尔窠,炎洲逐翠遭网罗。萧条两翅蓬蒿间,纵有鹰鹯奈若何”,李白此首“野田黄雀行”,第三和第四两句,分别是对第二和第一两句的内容作出解释,总之,此诗是上所言类型的变体而已。
          “草不谢荣于春风,木不怨落于秋天。谁挥鞭策驱四运?万物兴歇皆自然”,这是李白“日出入行”中的四句诗,把第三和第四两句交换一下位置,就完全属于上所言类型了。实际上,只是为了押韵,李白调整了这两句诗的位置。
          “君不见黄河之水天上来,奔流到海不复回;君不见高堂明镜悲白发,朝如青丝暮成雪。人生得意须尽欢,莫使金樽空对月”,李白此六句诗,只需把“莫使”改成“怎能”,它就完完整整地属于此类型,只是容量大了许多。
          李白称得上这一类型作品的大师。
          “飘风不终朝,骤雨不终日。孰为此者?天地。天地尚不能久,而况于人乎”,这是《老子》第二十三章的一段文字。中间的三句“孰为此者?天地。天地尚不能久”,其实可以合成一句——“造成飘风和骤雨的天地尚且不能使之长久”。换言之,被浓缩之后的这段话,明显的属于慧能和李白诗的那一类型。
          类型不是某个诗人灵机一动的结果,而是流溢出某种十分古老的意味。越是有古老意味,就越是能带来力量感。
          “攻城不怕坚,攻书莫畏难。科学有险阻,苦战能过关”,这是叶剑英的诗“攻关”。如果把第四句改成疑问句,这首诗就完全属于上所言慧能诗的类型了,或许正因为第四句是“苦战能过关”,全诗就不能让读者感觉酣畅淋漓。实际上,决不是任何“苦战”都能够导致“过关”。
          实际上,这一类型的诗,连李白也不是想写就能写出来的。“有身莫犯飞龙鳞,有手莫辫猛虎须”,这是李白“对雪醉后赠王历阳”的前两句诗,但最终也没有得到其他部分的呼应,让读者感觉不快。
          本文来源于古典文学网www.chinesemta.com),转载请保留原文链接及注明出处。
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