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          您所在的位置:首页 > 百科知识 > 中国传统节日

          清明节的文化意蕴

          作者:山爷来源:古典文学网发表于:2017-04-02 23:43:25阅读:
          春生孳乳,万物繁炽,天明地洁、气象清朗。时值农历阳春三月,乍暖轻冷,春光明媚、桃红柳绿、生气蓬勃,一年一度的清明节又来了。宋人吴唯信在《苏堤清明记事》中描写道:“梨花风起正清明,游子寻春半出城,日暮笙歌收拾去,万株杨柳属流莺。”蛰居一冬的人们,脱下厚厚的冬装,暂别城市的烦扰,扶老携幼,走出家门,投身大自然,祭祀扫墓,“祭先烈”“敬先贤”“忆先人”;踏青春游,插柳射柳,放风筝,荡秋千,一派情趣盎然。

          清明节,凝聚着传统文化丰富而隽永的内在意蕴,寄寓着炎黄子孙慎终追远的美好而缱绻的生命情愫,积淀着华夏儿女除旧迎新的成长与壮大的智慧营养,繁盛了代代国人朴素与虔诚的心灵家园。在这生机勃勃的时空境界中,先民们体验着自然造化对于塑造生命与滋养生命的伟大力量,发出了深沉的人生吟咏。其中,既有对时令节气之于农耕文明意义的深刻把握:“清明前后,种瓜点豆”,“植树造林,莫过清明”,也有对古之圣贤之于中华文化陶染的虔敬缅怀:“割肉奉君尽丹心,但愿主公常清明”;既有追念亲人亡灵、招抚逝者游魂的悠悠哀思:“纸灰飞作白蝴蝶,泪血染成红杜鹃”,亦有旅途雨丝凄迷,诗家惆怅低落的孤苦忧愁:“清明时节雨纷纷,路上行人欲断魂”;既有伤春怀旧、吹弹离歌的苦涩愁绪:“清明天气,永日愁如醉”,又有相将踏青去、陶陶醉绿野的恬然怡乐:“况是清明好天气,不妨游衍莫忘归”。这是一种至情至性的人生哲理的朴实蕴藉,这是一种复杂、本质的生命情怀的诗意激荡,千百年以来,文人骚客创作的卷帙浩繁、荡涤人心的诗词歌赋,恒久传唱。

          清明节扫墓与踏青,本来是两个截然不同的文化主题,发展中不断地被赋予既彼此独立又相互关联的文化意义,宋代以后渐次融为一体。

          清明节的主题之一是“回归自然,辞旧迎新”。

          宋黄庭坚《清明》诗中描绘:“佳节清明桃李笑,雨足郊原草木柔。”春暖花开,气清景明,正是结伴出户郊游的上好时节,恰如朱熹在《春日》诗中所言:“胜日寻芳泗水滨,无边光景一时新。等闲识得东风面,万紫千红总是春。”远足踏青,游春赏景,插柳辟邪,自由地展现生命的天然情趣,与山川湖泊做全面、深情的拥抱,亲近、享受大自然的清新,自发地生成活泼而温婉的和谐精神,可谓顺应天时,有助于吸纳天地宇宙纯阳之气,驱散积郁寒气和抛却抑郁心情,促进愉悦心情,强身健体,冀求达到一种天人和谐一体的理想的生存境界。隋朝时期,春游踏青在全国就颇为流行。展子虔所作的《游春图》展示桃杏争艳时节,波光潋滟,湖天一色,青山耸峙,江流无际,花团锦簇,人们春游泛舟,徜徉在青山绿水之间,好不闲适自在。唐代诗人杜甫也曾记载皇家游春踏青的盛景,“三月三日天地新,长安水边多丽人。”唐朝张萱名画《虢国夫人游春图》再现了唐代妇女骑马游春的盛景。宋时踏青之风盛行,画家张择端的风俗画《清明上河图》生动地描绘出以汴京外汴河为中心的清明时节的热闹情景。在这一画卷,画面人物之多,牲畜之众,船只之盛,车轿之广,堪称清明踏青之盛况。 白居易的《春游》诗“逢春不游乐,但恐是痴人。”春光明媚的日子里,就应该潇潇洒洒去游乐。这些珍惜光阴,及时游乐人生的绝诗佳画,正是追求天人和谐一体的理想的生存境界心境的写照。千百年来,踏青春游渐成了一种仪式,清明节显然充代了一种辞旧迎新的过渡仪式的作用,透露的是季节交替的信息,象征着新季节、新希望、新生命、新循环的开始,引导国民普遍的心仪践行。

          清明节的主题之二是“追思先人,催护生者”。

          中国传统节日有贵人伦,重亲情的显著特点。人们把祭祀先人与中华民族重视孝道、慎终追远的民族性格直接联系起来,清明节俗体现了中国人感恩、固本的道德意识,强调对“先德”的怀念和感谢,其文化意义类似西方感恩节。清明节祭祖扫墓、追念先人功德的活动,与中国文化深层的祖先崇拜、孝悌文化之间有着深刻的关连,而这种文化正是中国社会几千年来得以和谐稳定发展的支柱,有助于在古人与今人、前人与后人之间维护民族、亲情血脉相连的代际关系,并对生者起到潜移默化的情感教育作用,以求“民德归厚矣”,进而促进人与人、人与自然之间的和谐相处,这也是清明节具有强大生命力的民间根基,加之历朝一些明智官方的提倡和律令,这种根基日显稳固。到唐肃宗时,将寒食清明假期由以前4天增加到7天——在中国节假日史上,清明节首次成为了真正意义的“黄金周”,足见官方重视。

          “追思先人,催护生者”,实际上反映了中国人豁达的生死观。对生的渴求,死的恐惧,是人之常情。清明节从悲到乐的节日过程,也是人们追思先人、感恩父母、增进亲情、享受生活的过程,领悟生之短暂与珍贵,死之无奈与必然,启迪着人们更达观地对待生死,舒缓面对生死的紧张心理。孔子的“子不语怪力乱神”,庄子的“齐生死”,把生与死等量齐观,不分轩轾,把生命看成是一种自然过程,从这个意义上说,中华民族是一个生命韧性特别顽强的民族。由此而派生出对于生命的两种状态:一是对生命抱有一种顺应自然的态度——“知足常乐”的生存观;二是对死亡依然是一种淡然的态度——“视死如归”的死亡观。

          我们相信,清明节这种本真而高洁的情趣与智慧,集中而深刻地表达了上述两点思想与文化内涵,它们蕴涵于我们土生土长的传统文化之中,在现代文明的催护下,必定要茁壮成长为饱蕴民族精神的参天大树,传统节日焕发出生机和活力。
          本文来源于古典文学网www.chinesemta.com),转载请保留原文链接及注明出处。
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